This study uses the audit method to examine the effects of race, gender, and criminal history on housing outcomes. Testers, exhibiting characteristics suggestive of race and gender and disclosing one of three offenses, placed phone calls to rental property owners across the Midwest to inquire about renting a property. We found powerful negative effects for those with a criminal record seeking apartments, regardless of whether the offense was sexual or drug-related.
The current study compiles open-source news reports involving vigilantes who targeted individuals because of their status as a sex offender (SO) or their suspected involvement in a sex offense. The Sex Offender-Vigilante database includes 279 separate incidents of vigilantism against SOs, ranging from the dissemination of unsanctioned fliers to murder. Results indicate that the stigmatization that convicted SOs experience is so pervasive that it extends even to individuals suspected of having committed a sexual offense.
Delgado, Sheyla, Laura Negredo, Popy Begum, Michelle Cubellis, Alana Henninger, Douglas Evans, Kathy Tomberg, and Jeffrey Butts (2013). NYC Assessment 2013. New York, NY: Research & Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. The Research and Evaluation Center at John Jay College is assessing the implementation of gun violence reduction initiatives in New York City [...]