Respondent-Driven Sampling: Evaluating the Effects of the Cure Violence Model with Neighborhood Surveys

by Kwan-Lamar Blount-Hill and Jeffrey A. Butts August 2015 Acknowledgements This report was made possible with funds from the New York City Council and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of Princeton, NJ. The authors of this report are grateful to Dr. Richard Curtis for his guidance in the design and conduct of RDS surveys, and [...]

New York City Gun Violence: 2004-2014

Shootings per 1,000 population by Sheyla Delgado, Kevin Wolff, and Jeffrey Butts Research & Evaluation Center July 28, 2015 With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the New York City Council, the Research & Evaluation Center at John Jay College is conducting a program of studies known as NYC Cure. One study [...]

20 Questions (and Answers) About Juvenile Justice

Butts, Jeffrey A. (2015). 20 Questions (and Answers) About Juvenile Justice. New York, NY: Research and Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. City University of New York. Jeffrey Butts answers key questions about juvenile justice, including "what exactly is juvenile justice?"... "what does it mean when we read statistics about youth in 'the system'?" [...]

Perceptions of Violence in Harlem

by Sheyla A. Delgado, Jeffrey A. Butts, and Marissa Mandala Research & Evaluation Center June 2015 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding support for this research brief was provided by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the New York City Council. The authors are grateful for the cooperation and support of the hundreds of New York City residents who [...]

Perceptions of Violence in East New York (Brooklyn)

by Sheyla A. Delgado, Jeffrey A. Butts, and Marissa Mandala Research & Evaluation Center June 2015 The Research and Evaluation Center at John Jay College of Criminal Justice is assessing New York City’s violence reduction efforts. One element in the project involves in-person surveys with young men (ages 18-30) in various neighborhoods implementing the Cure [...]

Perceptions of Violence in the South Bronx

This study’s main goal was to measure changes in violent norms and attitudes in specific areas of New York City. The survey measured each respondent’s willingness to use violence in 17 hypothetical confrontation scenarios that ranged from minor to severe provocations. An index (or a composite score) was created from all 17 scenarios.

Racial Disparities in Juvenile Drug Arrests

by Jeffrey A. Butts June 1, 2015 The enforcement of U.S. drug laws during the 1980s and 1990s had disparate impacts on black youth despite the fact that illegal drug use in the U.S. does not differ significantly by race (SAMHSA 2014). Even adolescent involvement in drug sales does not vary significantly by race. Studies [...]

Perceptions of Violence: Surveying Young Males in New York City

In 2014, the JohnJayREC team began conducting surveys with residents in New York City neighborhoods where the Cure Violence program had been implemented for at least one year. Researchers surveyed samples of young male residents between the ages of 18 and 30, the demographic most at risk for violent offending and victimization. The survey instrument was designed to measure each respondent’s attitude towards violence, as well as other factors that could influence the endorsement of violent behavior.

Staying Connected: Introduction

When justice-involved youth are supervised by local agencies and placed with locally operated programs rather than being sent away to state facilities, they are better able to maintain community ties. They stay connected with their families and they are more likely to remain in local schools. Policy reforms that localize the justice system are often called “realignment.” New York’s “Close to Home” (or C2H) initiative is a prominent example of youth justice realignment.

New York’s “Close to Home” Initiative — Lessons Learned

by Jeffrey A. Butts March 16, 2015 New York’s Close to Home initiative (C2H) is a policy reform that brings young offenders home from far-away correctional institutions to be served by programs closer to their families. New York implemented the first phase of C2H in 2012 for youth from the State’s “non-secure” programs. A second [...]

New York’s “Close to Home” Initiative – Did it Work?

by Jeffrey A. Butts March 16, 2015 Close to Home (C2H) is an effort to localize the youth justice system in New York City by keeping young offenders near their neighborhoods and families rather than sending them away to facilities that are far from home. Phase 1 of the C2H initiative began in 2012. Phase [...]

Effectiveness of the Cure Violence Model in New York City

New research from the John Jay College Research & Evaluation Center (JohnJayREC) suggests that the Cure Violence Strategy may be effective in reducing the incidence of homicide. Researchers at John Jay worked with analysts at the New York Police Department (NYPD) to assemble information about violence in New York City neighborhoods and to compare areas with and without Cure Violence programs.

Cure Violence: A Public Health Model to Reduce Gun Violence

Scholars and practitioners alike in recent years have suggested that real and lasting progress in the fight against gun violence requires changing the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and the use of guns. The Cure Violence model is a public health approach to gun violence reduction that seeks to change individual and community attitudes and norms about gun violence.

Violent Youth Arrests Continue to Fall Nationwide

According to national arrest estimates calculated with data released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), law enforcement agencies across the United States made about 53,000 violent crime arrests involving youth under age 18 in 2013, compared with more than 60,000 in 2012.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Cure Violence Model in New York City

Butts, Jeffrey A. and Sheyla Delgado (2014). Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Cure Violence Model in New York City. New York, NY: Research & Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the City Council of New York City, the Research and Evaluation Center is [...]

Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles

The insights and lessons of developmental science do not translate easily into the day-to-day tasks of youth justice systems, which often focus on control and compliance. Youth justice practitioners require assistance as they apply developmental principles. The Positive Youth Justice (PYJ) Model was developed to meet this challenge.

Out-of-Home Placements Falling Among Younger Juveniles

by Jeffrey A. Butts September 5, 2014 The number of young people referred to court for delinquency offenses plummeted after the 1990s. According to juvenile court data maintained by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and disseminated by the National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ), the number of delinquency cases nationwide fell [...]

Statement of Jeffrey A. Butts to the New York Commission on Youth, Public Safety and Justice

Reducing youth crime is a complicated business, and I think we all know that it takes more than punishment. If it were possible to stop crime by simply increasing punishment, we would certainly know it by now.


Positive Youth Justice: A Model to Support Youth April 28, 2014 by Jeffrey A. Butts, PhD, Director, Research and Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice [read at the NCCD website] We ask youth justice systems to protect the public by preventing and reducing law violations by young people. To accomplish this mission, every [...]

The Second American Crime Drop

Are today’s violent crime rates different from the rates of 30 years ago? Do trends in serious and violent crime by juveniles (under age 18) differ from trends among older youth (i.e., young adults ages 18-24), and how much of the overall crime decline that began in the 1990s can be attributed to juvenies and older youth?

Denormalizing Violence

Cure Violence utilizes a public health approach. It considers gun violence to be analogous to a communicable disease that passes from person to person when left untreated. According to the logic of Cure Violence, gun violence is most effectively reduced by changing the behavior of individuals at risk to participate in gun violence and “denormalizing” violence by working to change the community norms that support and perpetuate gun violence.

Line Drawing

The differential response to childhood criminality is an established legal principle. Setting the operational legal boundaries between children, youth, and adults is complicated and contentious. It has been so for centuries. It is easy to agree that a specialized juvenile court is the proper forum for handling cases involving law violations by young people, but where exactly should states draw the line between juvenile and adult status?